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International Business Companies Act 1994

INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS COMPANIES ACT, 1994

(Act 24 of 1994)

I assent

F. A. René

President

23rd December, 1994

An Act to provide for the Incorporation, Registration and Operation of International Business Companies

Enacted by the President of the National Assembly

PART I

PRELIMINARY

  1.  This Act may be cited as the International Business Companies Act, 1994, commencement and shall come into operation on such date as the Minister may appoint by notice published in the Gazette.
  2. (1) In this Act -

    "Articles" means the Articles of Association of a company incorporated under this Act;

    "authorised capital", in relation to a company, means the sum of the aggregate par value of all shares which the company is authorised by its Memorandum to issue plus the amount, if any, stated in its Memorandum as authorised capital to be represented by shares without par value which the company is authorised by its Memorandum to issue;

    "Capital", in relation to a company, means the sum of the aggregate par value of all the outstanding shares with par value of a company and shares with par value held by the company as treasury shares plus –

    (a) the aggregate of the amounts designated as capital of all outstanding shares without par value of the company and shares without par value held by the company as treasury shares, and

    (b) the amounts as are from time to time transferred from surplus to capital by a resolution of the directors;

    "Companies Act" means the Companies Act, 1972 of Seychelles or any other similar law which replaces the Companies Act, 1972;

    "continued" means the continued in accordance with Part VIII;

    "court" means the Supreme Court;

    "member" means a person who holds shares in a company;

    "Memorandum" means the Memorandum of Association of a company incorporated under this Act;

    "Register" means the Register of International Business Companies maintained by the Registrar in accordance with section 14(2);

    "Registrar" means the Registrar of International Business Companies appointed under section 14;

    "securities" includes shares and debt obligations of every kind, and options, warrants and rights to acquire shares or debt obligations;

    "surplus", in relation to a company, means the excess, if any, at the time of the determination, of total assets of the company over the sum of its total liabilities, as shown in the books of account plus its issued and outstanding share capital;

    "treasury shares" means shares of a company that were otherwise acquired by the company and not cancelled.

    (2) A company that is incorporated under the laws of a jurisdiction outside Seychelles shall be a company incorporated under this Act if it is continued as a company incorporated under this Act and references to a "company incorporated under this Act" shall be construed accordingly.

    (3) Unless otherwise defined in the Articles "resolution of directors" means –

    (a) a resolution approved at a duly constituted meeting of directors or of a committee of directors of a company, by affirmative vote of a simple majority or such larger majority as may be specified in the Articles, of the directors present at the meeting who voted and did not abstain; or

    (b) a resolution consented to in writing by an absolute majority, or such larger majority as may be specified in the Articles, of all the directors or of all the members of the committee, as the case may be, but, where a director is given more than one vote in any circumstances, he shall in the circumstances be counted for the purposes of establishing majorities by the number of votes he casts.

    (4) Unless otherwise defined in the Articles "resolution of members" means –

    (a) a resolution approved at a duly constituted meeting of the members of a company by the affirmative vote of –

    (i) a simple majority, or such larger majority as may be specified in the Articles, of the votes of the shareholders present at the meeting and entitled to vote thereon and who voted and did not abstain; or

    (ii) a simple majority, or such larger majority as may be specified in the Articles of the votes of the shareholders of each class or series of shares present at the meeting and entitled to vote thereon as a class or series and who voted and did not abstain and of a simple majority or such larger majority as may be specified in the Articles, of the votes of the remaining shareholders entitled to vote thereon present at the meeting and who voted and did not abstain; or

    (b) a resolution consented to in writing by –

    (i) a simple majority or such larger majority as may be specified in the Articles, of the shareholders entitled to vote thereon, or

    (ii) a simple majority, or such larger majority as may be specified in the Articles, of the votes of the shareholders entitled to vote thereon as a class or series and of an absolute majority, or such larger majority as may be specified in the Articles, of the votes of the holders of the remaining shares entitled to vote thereon.

    (5) The symbol $ denotes dollars in the currency of the United States of America.

    PART II

    CONSTITUTION OF COMPANIES

  3.  Subject to the requirements of this Act, one or more persons may, by subscribing to a Memorandum incorporate a company under this Act.
  4.  A company shall not be incorporated under this Act unless immediately upon its incorporation the company is an International Business Company.
  5.   (1) For the purposes of this Act, an International Business Company is a company that does not –

    (a) carry on business in Seychelles;

    (b) own an interest in immovable property situate in Seychelles, or a lease of immovable property situate in Seychelles otherwise than as referred to in subsection (2)(e);

    (c) carry on banking as defined in the Financial Institutions Act, 1984 or a trust business;

    (d) carry on business as an insurance or a reinsurance company; or

    (e) carry on the business of providing the registered office for companies.

    (2) For the purposes of subsection (1)(a), an International Business Company shall not be treated as carrying on business in Seychelles by reason only that -

    (a) it makes or maintains deposits with a person carrying on business within Seychelles;

    (b) it makes or maintains professional contact with counsel and attorneys, accountants, bookkeepers, trust companies, management companies, investment advisers or other similar persons carrying on business within Seychelles;

    (c) it prepares or maintains books and records within Seychelles;

    (d) it holds, within Seychelles, meetings of its directors or members;

    (e) it holds a lease of property for use as an office from which to communicate with members or where books and records of the company are prepared or maintained;

    (f) it holds shares, debt obligations or other securities in a company incorporated under this Act or under the Companies Act;

    (g) it holds bonds, treasury bills and other securities issued by the Government of Seychelles or the Central Bank of Seychelles;

    (h) shares, debt obligations or other securities in the company are owned by any person resident in Seychelles or by any company incorporated under this Act or under the Company Act; or

    (i) it owns or manages a vessel registered in the Republic under the Merchant Shipping Act, 1992.

  6.  

    (1) Without prejudice to section 97, if a company is incorporated under this Act without having satisfied the requirements prescribed for an International Business Company by section 5, the company shall, or if having satisfied the requirements it subsequently ceases to satisfy those requirements for a continuous period of more than 30 days, upon the expiration of that period, notify the Registrar of that fact.

    (2) A company that contravenes subsection (1) shall be liable to a penalty of $100 for each day or part thereof during which the contravention continues.

    (3) A director who knowingly permits the contravention of subsection (1) shall be liable to a penalty of $100 for each day or part thereof during which the contravention continues.

  7.  A member, director, officer, agent or liquidator of a company incorporated under this Act shall not be liable for any debt, obligation or default of the company unless it is proved that he did not act in good faith or unless it is specifically provided in this Act or in any other law for the time being in force in Seychelles and except in so far as he may be liable for his own conduct or acts.
  8.  A company may be incorporated under this Act for any object or purpose or not prohibited by this Act or by any other law for the time being in force in Seychelles.
  9.  

    (1) Subject to any limitations in its Memorandum or Articles, this Act or any other law for the time being in force in Seychelles, a company incorporated under this Act has the power, irrespective of corporate benefit, to perform all acts and engage in all activities necessary or conducive to the conduct, promotion or attainment of the objects or purposes of the company, including the power to do the following:

    (a) issue registered shares or shares issued to bearer or both;

    (b) issue the following:

    (i) voting shares;

    (ii) non-voting shares;

    (iii) shares that may have more or less than one vote per share;

    (iv) shares that may be voted only on certain matters or only upon the occurrence of certain events;

    (v) shares that may be voted only when held by persons who meet specified requirements;

    (vi) no par value shares;

    (vii) unnumbered shares;

    (c) issue common shares, preferred shares, or redeemable shares;

    (d) issue shares that entitle participation only in certain assets;

    (e) issue options, warrants or rights, or instruments of a similar nature, to acquire any securities of the company;

    (f) issue securities that, at the option of the holder thereof or of the company or upon the happening of a specified event, are convertible into, or exchangeable for, other securities in the company or any property then owned or to be owned by the company;

    (g) purchase, redeem or otherwise acquire and hold its own shares;

    (h) guarantee a liability or obligation of any person and to secure any of its obligations by mortgage, pledge or other charge, of any of its assets for that purpose; and

    (i) protect the assets of the company for the benefit of the company, its creditors and its members, and at the discretion of the directors, for any person having a direct or indirect interest in the company.

    (2) For the purpose of subsection (1)(i), notwithstanding any other provision of this Act or of any other law for the time being in force in Seychelles to the contrary save the law as to fraudulent preference and the law as to dispositions made with intent to defraud creditors, the directors may cause the company to transfer any of its assets in trust to one or more trustees and, with respect to such transfer, the directors may provide that the company, its creditors, its members or any person having a direct or indirect interest in the company, or any of them, may be the beneficiaries, creditors, members, certificate holders, partners or holders of any other similar interest.

  10. (1) An act of a company incorporated under this Act and a transfer of movable or immovable property by or to a company so incorporated is not invalid by reason only of the fact that the company was without capacity or power to perform the act or to transfer or receive the property, but the lack of capacity or power may be pleaded in the following cases:

    (a) in proceedings by a member against the company to prohibit the performance of any act or the transfer of immovable or movable property by or to the company; or

    (b) in proceedings by the company, whether acting directly or through a receiver, trustee or other legal representative or through members in a derivative action, against the incumbent or former directors of the company for loss or damage due to their unauthorised act.

    (2) For the purposes of subsection (1)(a), the court may set aside and prohibit the performance of a contract if:

    (a) the unauthorised act or transfer sought to be set aside or prohibited is being, or is to be, performed or made under any contract to which the company is a party;

    (b) all the parties to the contract are parties to the proceedings; and

    (c) it appears fair and reasonable in the circumstances to set aside or prohibit the performance of the contract, and in so doing the court may, in applying this subsection, award to the company or to the other parties such compensation as may be reasonable except that in determining the amount of compensation the court shall not take into account anticipated profits to be derived from the performance of the contract.

  11. (1) The word "Limited", "Corporation", "Incorporated", "Société Anonyme" or "Sociedad Anomina", "Public Limited Company", "Societé à Responsabilité Limitée", "Berhad", "Proprietary", "Namloze Vennootschap", "Besloten Vennootschap", "Aktiengesellschaft" or "Limited Life Company" or the abbreviation "Ltd", "Corp", "Inc" or "S.A.", "PLC", "S.A.R.L.", "Bhd", "Pty", "NV", "B.V.", "A.G." or "LLC" shall form part of the name of every company incorporated under this Act provided that a company incorporated under the laws of a jurisdiction outside Seychelles and continued as a company incorporated under this Act may use the name designated in the Articles of continuation.

    (2) Subject to subsection (1), the name of a company may be expressed in any language but where the name is not in a national language a translation and transliteration of the name in English or French shall be given.

    (3) No company shall be incorporated under this Act under a name that:

    (a) is identical with that of a statutory corporation or that under which a company in existence is already incorporated under this Act or registered under the Companies Act or so nearly resembles the name of another company as to be calculated to deceive, except where the company in existence gives its consent;

    (b) contains the words "Assurance", "Bank", "Building Society", "Chamber of Commerce", "Chartered, "Cooperative", "Imperial", "Insurance", "Municipal", "Trust", "Foundation", or a word conveying a similar meaning, or any other word that, in the opinion of the Registrar, suggests or is calculated to suggest the patronage of or any connection with Seychelles or the Government of Seychelles or with any other country or the Government of that country;

    (c) is indecent, offensive or, in the opinion of the Registrar is otherwise objectionable or misleading.

    (4) A company may amend its Memorandum to change its name.

    (5) Where a company is incorporated under a name that:

    (a) is identical with a name under which a company in existence was incorporated under this Act or registered under the Companies Act; or

    (b) so nearly resembles the name of another company in existence which was incorporated under this Act or registered under the Companies Act as to be calculated to deceive or confuse, the Registrar may, whether or not the consent of the company in existence has been obtained pursuant to subsection (3)(a), give notice to the last registered company to change its name and if it fails to do so within 60 days from the date of the notice the Registrar shall direct the company to change its name to such name as the Registrar deems appropriate, and the Registrar shall publish a notice of the change in the Gazette.

    (6) Subject to subsections (3) and (5), where a company changes its name, the Registrar shall enter the new name on the Register in place of the former name, and shall issue a new certificate of incorporation indicating the change of name.

    (7) A change of name does not affect any rights or obligations of a company, or render defective any legal proceedings by or against a company, and all legal proceedings that have been commenced against a company by its former name may be continued against it in its new name.

    (8) Subject to subsection (3), the Registrar may, upon a request made by any person and payment of the prescribed fee, reserve for 90 days a name for future adoption by a company under this Act.

  12. (1) The Memorandum shall include the following particulars-

    (a) the name of the company;

    (b) the address within Seychelles of the registered office of the company;

    (c) the name and address within Seychelles of the registered agent of the company;

    (d) subject to subsection (2), the objects or purposes for which the company is to be incorporated;

    (e) the currency in which shares in the company shall be issued;

    (f) a statement of the authorised capital of the company setting forth the aggregate of the par value of the shares that the company is authorised to issue and the amount, if any, to be represented by shares without par value that the company is authorised to issue;

    (g) a statement of the number of classes and series of shares, the number of shares of each such class and series and the par value of shares with par value and that the shares may be without par value if this is the case;

    (h) a statement of the designations, powers, preferences and rights, and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions of each class and series of shares that the company is authorised to issue, unless the directors are to be authorised to fix any such designations, powers, preferences, rights, qualifications, and in that case, an express grant of such authority as may be desired to grant to the directors to fix by resolution any such designations, powers, preferences, rights, qualifications, limitations and restrictions that have not been fixed by the Memorandum;

    (i) a statement of the number of shares to be issued as registered shares and as shares issued to bearer, unless the directors are authorised to determine at their discretion whether shares are to be issued as registered shares or to bearer and in that case an express grant of such authority as may be desired shall be given to empower the directors to issue shares as registered shares or to bearer as they may determine by resolution of the directors;

    (j) whether registered shares may be exchanged for shares issued to bearer and whether shares issued to bearer may be exchanged for registered shares; and

    (k) if shares issued to bearer are authorised to be issued, the manner in which a required notice to members is to be given to the holders of shares issued to bearer.

    (l) in the case of a limited life or duration company, the period, which shall not exceed 50 years, of the duration of the life of the company.

    (m) a statement that the company shall not carry on any banking, insurance, reinsurance or trust business.

    (2) For the purposes of subsection (1)(d), if the Memorandum contains a statement either alone or with other objects or purposes that the object or purpose of the company is to engage in any act or activity that is not prohibited under any law for the time being in force in Seychelles, the effect of that statement is to make all acts and activities, that are not illegal, part of the objects or purposes of the company, subject to any limitations in the Memorandum.

    (3) The Memorandum shall be subscribed to by one or more persons in the presence of another person who shall write his full name and address and sign as a witness.

    (4) The Memorandum, when registered, binds the company and its members from time to time to the same extent as if each member had subscribed his name and affixed his seal thereto and as if there were contained in the Memorandum, on the part of himself, his heirs, executors and administrators, a covenant to observe the provisions of the Memorandum, subject to this Act.

    (5) The Memorandum may be written in the English or French language or if written in a language other than English or French shall be accompanied by a translation in the English or French language certified by the registered agent of the company of the Memorandum.

  13. (1) The Articles, if not submitted for registration with the Memorandum shall be submitted within 30 days following the date of incorporation.

    (2) The Articles shall be subscribed to by each subscriber of the Memorandum in the presence of another person who shall write his full name and address and sign as a witness.

    (3) The Articles, when registered, bind the company and its members from time to time to the same extent as if each member had subscribed his name and affixed his seal thereto and as if there were contained in the Articles, on the part of himself, his heirs, executors and administrators, a covenant to observe the provisions of the Articles, subject to this Act.

    (4) The Articles may be written in the English or French language or if written in a language other than in English or French shall be accompanied by a translation in the English or French language certified by the registered agent of the company of the Articles.

  14. (1) For the purposes of this Act the Minister shall appoint a Registrar of International Business Companies.

    (2) The Memorandum and Articles shall, on application made to the Registrar, be registered by the Registrar in a register to be maintained by him and to be known as the Register of International Business Companies.

    (3) Upon registration of the Memorandum, the Registrar shall issue a certificate of incorporation under his hand certifying that the company is incorporated.

    (4) The Minister may appoint a diplomatic or consular officer of Seychelles or any other person or body in a country or jurisdiction outside Seychelles to perform in that country or jurisdiction such of the functions of the Registrar as may be delegated to the officer, person or body by the Minister and, subject to subsection (6) any act or thing done by or before the diplomatic or consular officer or the other person or body appointed by the Minister shall be valid and effectual as if done by or before the Registrar.

    (5) The Minister may establish a branch office in a country or jurisdiction referred to in subsection (4) for the performance by or before the diplomatic or consular officer or the other person or body of the functions of the Registrar delegated to the officer or other person or body under that subsection.

    (6) A diplomatic or consular officer or other person or body shall before performing the functions delegated to the officer or other person or body under subsection (4) consult the Registrar and act in accordance with the instructions of the Registrar.

    (7) A diplomatic or consular officer or other person or body shall, as soon as practicable, forward to the Registrar copies of all applications made to the officer or other person or body and certificates or other documents issued by the officer or other person or body, a record of all fees and any penalty collected by the officer or other person or body under this Act and those fees and the penalty.

    (8) Any act done or certificate or document made or issued under this Act by a diplomatic or consular officer or person or body referred to in subsection (4) shall be deemed to be an act done or certificate or document made or issued by the Registrar under this Act.

  15.  Where the Registrar issues a certificate of incorporation of a company, the company is, from the date shown on the certificate of incorporation, a body corporate under the name contained in the Memorandum subject to any limitations imposed by the Memorandum and to the provisions of this Act.
  16.  A certificate of incorporation of a company incorporated under this Act issued by the Registrar shall be prima facie evidence of compliance with all requirements of this Act in respect of incorporation.

  17. (1) Subject to any limitation in its Memorandum or Articles, a company incorporated under this Act may amend its Memorandum or Articles by a resolution of members or, where permitted by its Memorandum or Articles or by this Act, by a resolution of directors.

    (2) A limited life company may by resolution alter its Memorandum to extend the period of the duration of the company to such period or periods not exceeding in aggregate 99 years from the date of its incorporation.

    (3) A company that amends its Memorandum or Articles shall submit a copy of the amendment certified by a director or officer of the company to the Registrar within 30 days after the resolution is approved or consented and the Registrar shall retain and register the copy of the amendment.

    (4) An amendment to the Memorandum or Articles has effect from the time the amendment is registered by the Registrar.

    (5) A company that contravenes subsection (3) shall be liable to a penalty of $50 for each day or part thereof during which the contravention continues.

    (6) A director who knowingly permits the contravention of subsection (3) shall be liable to a penalty of $50 for each day or part thereof during which the contravention continues.

  18.  A copy of the Memorandum and a copy of the Articles shall be given to any member who requests a copy on payment by the member of such amount as the directors may determine to be reasonably necessary to defray to members the costs of preparing and furnishing them.
  19. PART III

    CAPITAL AND DIVIDENDS

  20.  Subject to any limitations in the Memorandum or Articles, each share in a company incorporated under this Act shall be issued for money or other valuable consideration.
  21.  

    (1)Subject to any limitations in the Memorandum or Articles, shares in a company incorporated under this Act may be issued for such amount as may be determined from time to time by the directors, except that in the case of shares with par value the amount shall not be less than the par value; and, in the absence of fraud, the decision of the directors as to the value of the consideration received by the company in respect of the issue is conclusive, unless a question of law is involved.

    (2)Subject to any limitations in the Memorandum or Articles, treasury shares and unissued shares may be disposed of by a company incorporated under this Act on such terms and conditions as the directors may determine.

  22.  Subject to any limitations in its Memorandum or Articles, a company incorporated under this Act may issue fractions of a share and unless and to the extent otherwise provided in the Memorandum or Articles, a fractional share has the corresponding fractional liabilities, limitations, preferences, privileges, qualifications, restrictions, rights and other attributes of a share of the same class or series of shares.
  23.  

    (1) Where a company incorporated under this Act issues a share with par value, the consideration in respect of the share constitutes capital to the extent of the par value and the excess constitutes surplus.

    (2) Subject to any limitations in the Memorandum or Articles, where a company incorporated under this Act issues a share without par value, the consideration in respect of the share constitutes capital to the extent designated by the directors and the excess constitutes surplus, except that the directors shall designate as capital an amount of the consideration that shall be at least equal to the amount that the share is entitled to as a preference, if any, in the assets of the company upon liquidation of the company.

    (3) Upon the disposition by a company incorporated under this Act of a treasury share, the consideration in respect of the share shall be added to surplus.

  24.  

    (1) A share issued as a dividend by a company incorporated under this Act shall be treated for all purposes as having been issued for money equal to the surplus that has been transferred to capital upon the issue of the share.

    (2) In the case of a dividend of authorised but unissued shares with par value, an amount equal to the aggregate par value of the shares shall be transferred from surplus to capital at the time of the distribution.

    (3) In the case of a dividend of authorised but unissued shares without par value, the amount designated by the directors shall be transferred from surplus to capital at the time of the distribution, except that the directors shall designate as capital an amount that is at least equal to the amount that the shares are entitled to as preference, if any, in the assets of the company upon liquidation of the company.

    (4) A division of the issued and outstanding shares of a class or series of shares into a larger number of shares of the same class or series having proportionately small par value does not constitute a dividend of shares.

  25.  

    (1) Subject to any limitations in its Memorandum or Articles, a company incorporated under this Act may, by a resolution of directors, amend its Memorandum to increase or reduce its authorised capital, and in connection therewith, the company may –

    (a) increase or reduce the number of shares which the company may issue;

    (b) increase or reduce the par value of any of its shares; or

    (c) effect any combination under paragraphs (a) and (b).

    (2) Where a company reduces its authorised capital under subsection (1), then, for purposes of computing capital of the company, any capital that immediately before the reduction was represented by shares but immediately following the reduction is no longer represented by shares shall be deemed to be surplus transferred from capital to surplus.

    (3) A company incorporated under this Act shall, in writing, inform the Registrar of any increase or decrease of its authorised capital within 30 days after the resolution.

    (4) A company that contravenes subsection (3) shall be liable to a penalty of $25 for each day or part thereof during which the contravention continues.

    (5) A director who knowingly permits the contravention of subsection (3) shall be liable to a penalty of $25 for each day or part thereof during which the contravention continues.

  • A company incorporated under this Act may amend its Memorandum -
  • to divide the shares, including issued shares, of a class or series into a larger number of shares of the same class or series; or
  • to combine the shares, including issued shares of a class or series into a smaller number of shares of the same class or series.
  • Where shares are divided or combined under subsection (1), the aggregate par value of the new shares shall be equal to the aggregate par value of the original shares.
  • Shares of a company incorporated under this Act are movable property and are not of the nature of immovable property.
  • A company incorporated under this Act shall state in its Articles whether or not certificates in respect of its shares shall be issued.
  • Where a company incorporated under this Act issues certificates in respect of its shares, the certificates shall be evidenced by the signature of a director or officer of the company; and the Articles may provide for the signatures to be facsimiles.
  • A certificate issued in accordance with subsection (2) specifying a share held by a member of the company shall be prima facieevidence of the title of the member to the share specified therein.
  • A company incorporated under this Act shall cause to be kept one or more registers to be known as Share Registers containing-
  • the names and addresses of the persons who hold registered shares in the company;
  • the number of each class and series of registered shares held by each person;
  • the date on which the name of each person was entered in the Share Register;
  • the date on which any person ceased to be a member;
  • in the case of shares issued to bearer, the total number of each class and series of shares issued to bearer;
  • with respect to each certificate for shares issued to bearer-
  • the identifying number of the certificate;
  • the number of each class or series of shares issued to bearer specified therein, and
  • the date of issue of the certificate;
  • but the company may delete from the Share Register information relating to shares issued to bearer that have been cancelled.

  • The Share Register may be in such form as the directors may approve but if it is in magnetic, electronic or other data storage form, the company shall be able to produce legible evidence of its contents.
  • A copy of the Share Register, commencing from the date of the registration of the company, shall be kept at the office of the company referred to in section 38 or such other place as the Directors determine and the company shall inform the Registrar of the address of the other place.
  • The Share Register shall be prima facie evidence of any matters directed or authorised by this Act to be contained therein.
  • A company that contravenes this section shall be liable to a penalty of $25 for each day or part thereof during which the contravention continues.
  • A director who knowingly permits the contravention of this section shall be liable to a penalty of $25 for each day or part thereof during which the contravention continues.
  • information that is required to be entered in the Share Register under section 28 is omitted therefrom or inaccurately entered therein; or
  • there is unreasonable delay in entering the information in the Share Register,
  • a member of the company, or any person who is aggrieved by the omission, inaccuracy or delay may apply to the court for an order that the Share Register be rectified, and the court may either grant or refuse the application, with or without costs to be paid by the applicant, or order the rectification of the Share Register and may direct the company to pay all costs of the application and any damages the applicant may have sustained.

  • The court may, in any proceedings under subsection (1) determine –
  • any question relating to the right of a person who is a party to the proceedings to have his name entered in or omitted from the Share Register, whether the question arises between –
  • two or more members or alleged members; or
  • between members or alleged members and the company, and
  • generally any question that may be necessary or expedient to be determined for the rectification of the Share Register.
  • Subject to any limitations in the Memorandum or Articles, registered shares of a company incorporated under this Act may be transferred by a written instrument of transfer signed by the transferor and containing, save in the case of bearer shares, the name and address of the transferee.
  • In the absence of a written instrument of transfer mentioned in subsection (1), the directors may accept such evidence of a transfer of shares as they consider appropriate.
  • A company shall not be required to treat a transferee of a registered share in the company as a member until the transferee's name has been entered in the Share Register.
  • Subject to any limitations in its Memorandum or Articles, a company incorporated under this Act shall, on the application of the transferor or transferee of a registered share in the company, enter in its Share Register the name of the transferee of the share.
  • A transfer of registered shares of a deceased, or bankrupt member of a company incorporated under this Act made by his personal representative, guardian or trustee, as the case may be, or a transfer of registered shares owned by a person as a result of a transfer from a member by operation of law, is of the same validity as if the personal representative, guardian, trustee or transferee had been the registered holder of the shares at the time of the execution of the instrument of transfer.
  • A share issued to bearer shall be transferable by delivery of the certificate relating to the share.
  • Where a governmental authority, whether it is legally constituted or not, in any jurisdiction outside Seychelles -
  • by or in connection with a nationalisation, expropriation, confiscation, coercion, force or duress, or similar action; or
  • by or in connection with the imposition of any confiscatory tax, assessment or other governmental charge,
  • takes or seizes any shares or other interest in a company incorporated under this Act, the company itself or a person holding shares or any other interest in a company, including an interest as a creditor, may apply to the court for an order that the company disregard the taking or seizure and continue to treat the person who would have held shares or any other interest in the company but for the taking or seizure of the shares or other interest as continuing to hold the shares or other interest.

  • Without affecting subsection (1), where a person whose shares or other interest have been taken or seized as referred to in subsection (1) is other than a natural person, the person making the application under subsection (1) or the company itself, may apply to the court for an additional order for the company to treat the persons believed by the company to have held the direct or indirect beneficial interests in the shares or other interests in the company as the holder of those shares or other interest.
  • The court may, upon application made to it under subsection (1) or (2) -
  • grant such relief as it considers equitable and proper; and
  • order that any shares of or other interests in the company vest in such person or authority as the court may appoint and for such purposes as the court may determine.
  • Subject to any limitations in its Memorandum or Articles, a company incorporated under this Act may purchase, redeem or otherwise acquire and hold its own shares but only out of surplus or in exchange for newly issued shares of equal value.
  • No purchase, redemption or other acquisition permitted under subsection (1) shall be made unless the directors determine that immediately after the purchase, redemption or other acquisition -
  • the company will be able to satisfy its liabilities as they become due in the ordinary course of its business; and
  • the realizable value of the assets of the company will not be less than the sum of its total liabilities, other than deferred taxes, as shown in the books of account, and its issued and outstanding share capital,
  • and, in the absence of fraud, the decision of the directors as to the realizable value of the assets of the company is conclusive unless a question of law is involved.

  • A determination by the directors under subsection (2) is not required where shares are purchased, redeemed or otherwise acquired -
  • pursuant to a right of a member to have his shares redeemed or to have his shares exchanged for money or other property of the company;
  • in exchange for newly issued shares in the company;
  • by virtue of the provisions of section 79; and
  • pursuant to an order of the court.
  • Subject to any limitations in the Memorandum or Articles, shares that a company purchases, redeems or otherwise acquires may be cancelled or held as treasury shares unless the shares are purchased, redeemed or otherwise acquired out of capital pursuant to section 35, in which case they shall be cancelled; and upon the cancellation of a share, the amount included as capital of the company with respect to that share shall be deducted from the capital of the company.
  • Where shares in a company incorporated under this Act -
  • are held by the company as treasury shares; or
  • are held by another company of which the first company holds, directly or indirectly, shares having more than 50 percent of the votes in the election of directors of the other company,
  • the shareholders of the first company are not entitled to vote or to have dividends paid thereon and shall not be treated as outstanding for any purpose under this Act except for the purpose of determining the capital of the first company.

  • Subject to any limitations in the Memorandum or Articles and subsections (3) and (4), the capital of a company incorporated under this Act may by resolution of directors, be -
  • increased by transferring an amount out of the surplus of the company to capital; or
  • reduced by -
  • returning to members any amount received by the company upon the issue of any of its shares, the amount being surplus to the company;
  • canceling any capital that is lost or not represented by assets having realizable value; or
  • transferring capital to surplus for the purpose of purchasing, redeeming or otherwise acquiring shares that the directors have resolved to purchase, redeem or otherwise acquire.
  • Where a company reduces its capital under subsection (1), the company may -
  • return to members any amount received by the company upon the issue of its shares;
  • purchase, redeem or otherwise acquire its shares out of capital; or
  • cancel any capital that is lost or not represented by assets having a realizable value.
  • No reduction of capital shall be effected that reduces the capital of the company to an amount that is less than the sum of -
  • the aggregate of -
  • all outstanding shares with par value, and
  • all shares with par value held by the company as treasury shares; and
  • the aggregates of the amounts designated as capital of -
  • all outstanding shares without par value; and
  • all shares without par value held by the company as treasury shares that are entitled to a preference, if any, in the assets of the company upon liquidation of the company.
  • No reduction of capital shall be effected under subsection (1) unless the directors determine that immediately after the reduction-
  • the company will be able to satisfy its liabilities as they become due in the ordinary course of its business; and
  • the realizable value of the assets of the company will not be less than its total liabilities, other than deferred taxes, as shown in the books of account, and its remaining issued and outstanding share capital,
  • and, in the absence of fraud, the decision of the directors as to the realizable value of the assets of the company is conclusive unless a question of law is involved.

  • Subject to any limitations in its Memorandum or Articles a company incorporated under this Act may, by a resolution of directors, declare and pay dividends in money, shares or other property.
  • Dividends shall only be declared and paid if the directors determine that immediately after the payment of the dividend -
  • the company will be able to satisfy its liabilities as they become due in the ordinary course of its business; and
  • the realizable value of the assets of the company will not be less than the sum of its total liabilities, other than deferred taxes, as shown in the books of account, and its issued and outstanding share capital,
  • and, in the absence of fraud, the decision of the directors as to the realizable value of the assets of the company is conclusive unless a question of law is involved.

  • Subject to any limitations in its Memorandum or Articles a company incorporated under this Act may, by a resolution of directors, include in the computation of surplus for any purpose under this Act the net unrealised appreciation of assets of the company, and, in the absence of fraud, the decision as to the value of the assets is conclusive, unless a question of law is involved.
  • PART IV

    REGISTERED OFFICE AND AGENT

  • A company incorporated under this Act shall at all times have a registered office in Seychelles.
  • The directors of the company may change the address of the registered office of the company, which change shall be notified to the Registrar.
  • A company incorporated under this Act shall at all times have a registered agent in Seychelles.
  • All applications made and all documents required to be submitted to the Registrar under this Act by a company incorporated under this Act shall be made through the registered agent who shall verify in writing the signature of any person appearing on the application or document and the registered agent may accept service on behalf of the company and any service accepted by the registered agent shall be deemed to have been accepted by the company.
  • A company shall, not later than 7 days after changing its registered agent in Seychelles, notify the Registrar of the name and address of its new registered agent and the change shall have effect on the date the Registrar receives the notice of change.
  • A company that contravenes section 38 or 39 (1), (2) or (3) shall be liable to a penalty of $25 for each day or part thereof during which the contravention continues.
  • A director who knowingly permits the contravention of section 38 or 39 (1), (2) or (3) shall be liable to a penalty of $25 for each day or part thereof during which the contravention continues.
  • PART V

    DIRECTORS, OFFICERS, AGENTS AND LIQUIDATORS

  • Subject to any limitations in its Memorandum or Articles, the business and affairs of a company incorporated under this Act shall be managed by a board of directors that consists of one or more persons who may be individuals or companies.
  • The first directors of a company incorporated under this Act shall be elected by the subscribers to the Memorandum; and thereafter, the directors shall be elected by the members for such term as the members may determine and where permitted by the Memorandum or Articles of a company incorporated under this Act, the directors may also elect directors for such term as the directors may determine.
  • Each director holds office until his successor takes office or until his earlier death, resignation or removal or in the case of a company upon the making of an order for the winding up or dissolution of the company or upon the removal of a defunct company otherwise than pursuant to a winding-up order.
  • Subject to any limitations in the Memorandum or Articles -
  • a director shall cease to hold the office of director if a majority of the directors, require his resignation in writing;
  • a director may resign his office by giving written notice of his resignation to the company and the resignation has effect from the date the notice is received by the company or from such later date as may be specified in the notice.
  • Subject to any limitations in the Memorandum or Articles, a vacancy in the board of directors may be filled by a resolution of members or of a majority of the remaining directors.
  • The number of directors shall be fixed by the Articles and, subject to any limitations in the Memorandum or Articles, the Articles may be amended to change the number of directors.
  • The directors shall have all the powers of the company that are not reserved to the members under this Act or in the Memorandum or Articles.
  • Subject to any limitations in the Memorandum or Articles, the directors may, by a resolution of directors, fix the emoluments of directors in respect of services to be rendered in any capacity to the company.
  • The directors may, by a resolution of directors, designate one or more committees, each consisting of one or more directors.
  • Subject to any limitations in the Memorandum or Articles, each committee has such powers and authority of the directors, including the power and authority to affix the common seal, if any, of the company, as are set forth in the resolution of directors establishing the committee, except that no committee has any power or authority with respect to the matters requiring a resolution of directors under section 2(3).
  • Subject to any limitations in the Memorandum or Articles, the directors of a company incorporated under this Act may meet at such times and in such manner and places within or outside Seychelles as the directors may determine to be necessary or desirable.
  • A director shall be deemed to be present at a meeting of directors if -
  • he participates by telephone or other electronic means; and
  • all directors participating in the meeting are able to hear each other and recognise each other's voice and for this purpose participation constitutes prima facie proof of recognition.
  • Subject to a requirement in the Memorandum or Articles to give longer notice, a director shall be given not less than 2 days notice of meetings of directors.
  • Notwithstanding subsection (1) but subject to any limitations in the Memorandum or Articles, a meeting of directors held in contravention of that subsection is valid if all the directors, or such majority thereof as may be specified in the Memorandum or Articles entitled to vote at the meeting, have waived the notice of the meeting; and for this purpose, the presence of a director at the meeting shall be deemed to constitute waiver on his part.
  • The inadvertent failure to give notice of a meeting to a director, or the fact that a director has not received the notice, does not invalidate the meeting.
  • The quorum for a meeting of directors is that fixed by the Memorandum or Articles; but where no quorum is so fixed a meeting of directors is properly constituted for all purposes if at the commencement of the meeting one half of the total number of directors are present in person or by alternate.
  • Subject to any limitations in the Memorandum or Articles, an action that may be taken by the directors or a committee of directors at a meeting may also be taken by a resolution of directors or a committee of directors consented to in writing or by telex, telefax, telegram, cable or other written electronic communication, without the need for any notice.
  • Subject to any limitations in the Memorandum or Articles, a director may by a written instrument appoint an alternate who need not be a director.
  • An alternate for a director appointed under subsection (1) shall be entitled to attend meetings in the absence of the director who appointed him and to vote or consent in the place of the director.
  • The directors may, by a resolution of directors appoint any person, including a person who is a director, to be an officer or agent of the company.
  • Subject to any limitations in the Memorandum or Articles, each officer or agent has such powers and authority of the directors, including the power and authority to affix the common seal, if any, of the company, as are set forth in the Articles or in the resolution of directors appointing the officer or agent, except that no officer or agent has any power or authority with respect to the matters requiring a resolution of directors under section 44 and this section.
  • The directors may remove an officer or agent appointed under subsection (1) and may revoke or vary a power conferred on him under subsection (2).
  • Every director, officer, agent and liquidator of a company incorporated under this Act, in performing his functions, shall act honestly and in good faith with a view to the best interests of the company and exercise the care, diligence and skill that a reasonably prudent person would exercise in comparable circumstances.
  • Every director, officer, agent and liquidator of a company incorporated under this Act, in performing his functions is entitled to rely upon the Share Register kept under section 28, the books of accounts and records and the minutes and copies of consents to resolutions kept under section 65 and any report made to the company by any other director, officer, agent or liquidator or by any person selected by the company to make the report.
  • Subject to any limitations in the Memorandum or Articles, if the requirements of subsection (2) are satisfied, no agreement or transaction between -
  • (a) a company incorporated under this Act; and
  • (b) one or more of its directors or liquidators, or any person in which any director or liquidator has a financial interest or to whom any director or liquidator is related, including as a director or liquidator of that other person,
  • is void or voidable for this reason only or by reason only that the director or liquidator is present at the meeting of directors or liquidators, at the meeting of the committee of directors or liquidators, that approves the agreement or transaction or that the vote or consent of the director or liquidator is counted for that purpose.
  • An agreement or transaction referred to in subsection (1) is valid if -
  • the material facts of the interest of each director or liquidator in the agreement or transaction and his interest in or relationship to any other party to the agreement or transaction are disclosed in good faith or are known by the members entitled to vote at a meeting of members; and
  • the agreement or transaction is approved or ratified by a resolution of members.
  • Subject to any limitations in the Memorandum or Articles, a director or liquidator who has an interest in any particular business to be considered at a meeting of directors, liquidators or members may be counted for purposes of determining whether the meeting is duly constituted in accordance with section 49 or otherwise.
  • Subject to subsection (2) and any limitations in its Memorandum or Articles, a company incorporated under this Act may indemnify against all expenses, including legal fees, and against all judgements, fines and amounts paid in settlement and reasonably incurred in connection with legal, administrative or investigative proceedings any person who -
  • is or was a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed proceedings, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative, by reason of the fact that the person is or was a director, an officer or a liquidator of the company; or
  • is or was, at the request of the company, serving as a director, officer or liquidator of, or in any other capacity is or was acting for, another company or a partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise.
  • Subsection (1) only applies to a person referred to in that subsection if the person acted honestly and in good faith with a view to the best interests of the company and in the case of criminal proceedings, the person had no reasonable cause to believe that his conduct was unlawful.
  • The decision of the directors as to whether the person acted honestly and in good faith and with a view to the best interests of the company and as to whether the person had no reasonable cause to believe that his conduct was unlawful is, in the absence of fraud, sufficient for the purposes of this section, unless a question of law is involved.
  • The termination of any proceedings by any judgement, order, settlement, conviction or the entering of a nolle prosequidoes not, by itself, create a presumption that the person did not act honestly and in good faith and with a view to the best interests of the company or that the person had reasonable cause to believe that his conduct was unlawful.
  • If a person referred to in subsection (1) has been successful in defence of any proceedings referred to in subsection (1), the person is entitled to be indemnified against all expenses, including legal fees, and against all judgements, fines and amounts paid in settlement and reasonably incurred by the person in connection with the proceedings.
  • A company incorporated under this Act may purchase and maintain insurance in relation to any person who is or was a director, an officer or a liquidator of the company, or who at the request of the company is or was serving as a director, an officer or a liquidator of, or in any other capacity is or was acting for, another company or a partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, against any liability asserted against the person and incurred by the person in that capacity, whether or not the company has or would have had the power to indemnify the person against the liability under section 56(1).
  • PART VI

    PROTECTION OF MEMBERS AND CREDITORS

  • Subject to any limitations in the Memorandum or Articles, the directors of a company incorporated under this Act may convene meetings of the members of the company at such times and in such manner and places within or outside Seychelles as the directors consider necessary or desirable.
  • Subject to a provision in the Memorandum or Articles for a lesser percentage, upon the written request of members holding more than 50 percent of the votes of the outstanding voting shares in the company, the directors shall convene a meeting of members.
  • Subject to any limitations in the Memorandum or Articles, a member shall be deemed to be present at a meeting of members if -
  • he participates by telephone or other electronic means; and
  • all members participating in the meeting are able to hear each other and recognise each other's voice and for this purpose participation constitutes prima facie proof of recognition.
  • A member may be represented at a meeting of members by a proxy who may speak and vote on behalf of the member.
  • The following provisions apply in respect of joint ownership of shares -
  • if 2 or more persons hold shares jointly each of them may be present in person or by proxy at a meeting of members and may speak as member;
  • if only one of them is present in person or by proxy, he may vote on behalf of all of them; and
  • if 2 or more are present in person or by proxy, they shall vote as one.
  • Subject to a requirement in the Memorandum or Articles to give longer notice, the directors shall give not less than 7 days notice of meetings of members to those persons whose names on the date the notice is given appear as members in the Share Register referred to in section 28 and are entitled to vote at the meeting.
  • Notwithstanding subsection (1) but subject to any limitations in the Memorandum or Articles, a meeting of members held in contravention of the requirement to give notice is valid if members holding a 90 percent majority, or such lesser majority as may be specified in the Memorandum or Articles, of -
  • the total number of the shares of the members entitled to vote on all the matters to be considered at the meeting; or
  • the votes of each class or series of shares where members are entitled to vote thereon as a class or series together with an absolute majority of the remaining votes,
  • have waived notice of the meeting; and for this purpose, the presence of a member at the meeting shall be deemed to constitute waiver on his part.
  • The inadvertent failure of the directors to give notice of a meeting to a member, or the fact that a member has not received the notice, does not invalidate the meeting.
  • The quorum for a meeting of members for purposes of a resolution of members is that fixed by the Memorandum or Articles; but where no quorum is so fixed, a meeting of members is properly constituted for all purposes if at the commencement of the meeting there are present in person or by proxy shareholders representing more than one-half of the shares of each class or series thereof.
  • Except as otherwise provided in the Memorandum or Articles, all shares vote as one class and each whole share has one vote.
  • The directors of a company incorporated under this Act may fix the date notice is given of a meeting as the record date for determining those shares that are entitled to vote at the meeting.
  • Subject to any limitations in the Memorandum or Articles, an action that may be taken by members at a meeting of members may also be taken by a resolution of all members consented to in writing or by telex, telegram, telefax, cable or other written electronic communication, without the need for any notice.
  • Any notice, information or written statement required under this Act to be given to members by a company incorporated under this Act shall be served -
  • in the case of members holding registered shares -
  • in the manner prescribed in the Memorandum or Articles, as the case may be, or
  • in the absence of a provision in the Memorandum or Articles, by personal service or by mail addressed to each member at the address shown in the Share Register; and
  • in the case of members holding shares issued to bearer, in the absence of a provision in the Memorandum or Articles, if the notice, information or written statement is published in the Gazette, a newspaper circulating in Seychelles, a newspaper circulating in the place where the company has its principal office and, where a company is registered in a branch office, a newspaper circulating in the country or jurisdiction where the branch office is situated.
  • Subject to a requirement in the Memorandum or Articles to give a specific length of notice, the directors shall give sufficient notice of meetings of members to members holding shares issued to bearer to allow a reasonable opportunity for them to take action in order to secure or exercise the right or privilege, other than the right or privilege to vote, that is the subject of the notice.
  • Any summons, notice, order, document, process, information or written statement to be served on a company incorporated under this Act may be served by leaving it, or by sending it by registered mail addressed to the company at its registered office, or by leaving it with, or by sending it by registered mail to, the registered agent of the c